The U.S. and China both confront similar physical and policy hurdles in transforming their power sectors, despite having distinct economic and institutional conditions. Both nations have made ambitious commitments to decarbonize their power generation, with the U.S. aiming for a zero-carbon power sector by 2035, and China targeting 39% non-fossil-based power generation by 2025 outlined in its 14th Five-Year-Plan. Both nations share opportunities and challenges in decarbonizing their power sector, including ensuring reliability, controlling and retiring coal-fired generation, promoting regional integration, improving system flexibility, and enhancing end-use energy efficiency.


  • Mike O’Boyle, Energy Innovation*
  • Max Dupuy, Regulatory Assistance Project* 

* Organizations are noted for affiliation purposes only. This paper represents authors’ views, and not necessarily those of their institutions.