The global vehicle market in 2021 was heavily influenced by the U.S. and China, which together accounted for more than 50% of the market. Zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) sales saw significant growth, with 4% of total light-duty vehicle sales in the U.S. being ZEVs, doubling the previous year's market share and reaching a penetration rate of 12.4% in California. Meanwhile, China leads the world in ZEV adoption, particularly in the commercial sector, with its New Energy Vehicles accounting for 50% of global sales. To further advance ZEV adoption, key policy elements include mandatory or incentivized electrification by automakers, equity-focused incentives for buyers, investment in charging infrastructure, particularly for multi-family dwellings and public charging stations, increased outreach and education, and local leadership from cities and regions.


  • Yunshi Wang, University of California, Davis*
  • Xiuli Zhang, University of California, Davis *
  • Hui He, International Council for Clean Transportation *
  • Dan Sperling, University of California, Davis* 

* Organizations are noted for affiliation purposes only. This paper represents authors’ views, and not necessarily those of their institutions.